Ave Maria:

Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate


"Come Holy Spirit, come by means of the powerful intercession of

the Immaculate Heart of Mary, your well-beloved spouse."


It was a grievous sin. While it is difficult to comprehend, we must remember that Adam and Eve lived on a higher level. They lived in a much higher state, one that was very close to God. Defying God by eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil was so serious that it cost them Eden; it cost them their immortality; and it became a sin that was transferred to future generations.

In His great mercy, Our Heavenly Father promised to send a Savior. Indeed He sent His only begotten Son, who was one with the Father. In essence the Father, not only sacrificed His only Son for his human children, but sacrificed Himself as well.

His plan for our salvation; however, requires our active participation. As children of God, we are called to coredemption. Indeed, according to Holy Scripture, we can not enter the kingdom of Heaven unless we coredeem ourselves. In no way does this detract from the Redemptive Sacrifice of Jesus, but rather it serves to compliment it.

 It was St. Paul who said "For we are God’s co-workers…" (I Cor. 3:9)

The prefix "co" is derived from the Latin word "cum", and means "WITH", as in "co-pilot", "co-worker", "co-incidence", "co-insurance", "co-llaborate", "co-operate", "co-existence", "co-pay", etc. Consider that the word "communion" is a Latin derivative meaning "with union" or "in union with".

It is worthy of emphasis that the prefix "co" indicates inferior dependence. It does NOT mean that we are on an equal footing with Jesus Christ. He is the one and only, Redeemer.

This means that we are called by God to actively cooperate in His plan for our salvation, and thereby obtain all of the graces that Jesus won through His passion and death on the cross.

We do this by:


Being baptized in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit,


Accepting Jesus Christ as the Son of God and Our Savior,


Keeping the Ten Commandments, and seeking forgiveness of our sins.


Living Holy Scripture,


Suffering daily for the sin of Adam, and


Experiencing death, and subsequently being resurrected by the Holy Trinity into our glorified bodies.

Holy Scripture tells us in a number of places that we must participate in our redemption, actively and overtly.

"Now, I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am filling up what is lacking in the afflictions of Christ on behalf of His body, which is the church...". (Col. 1:24)

"…So also faith of itself, if it does not have works, is dead…You believe that God is one. You do well. Even the demons believe that and tremble. Do you want proof, you ignoramus, that faith without works is useless? Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered his son Isaac upon the altar? You see that faith was active along with his works, and faith was completed by the works…" (Jas 3:14-26)

[It is worthy of emphasis that in the passage above, St. James is telling us that believing alone that Jesus Christ is the Son of God is insufficient. The demons of Hell KNOW that Jesus is the Son of God and still they burn.]

"…I know your works; I know that you are neither cold nor hot. I wish your were either cold or hot. So, because you are lukewarm, neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of my mouth…" (Rv 3:15-16).

 Furthermore, it was the Will of Our Heavenly Father:


that His only begotten Son take on human flesh;


that His only begotten Son take on human flesh through a woman;


that this woman agree willingly to participate in God’s plan for the salvation of mankind by becoming the Spouse of the Holy Spirit and the Mother of the Son of God;


that this woman consent willingly to offer her Son, and His Son, as a sacrifice to the Father; and


that this woman agree willingly not to interfere with God’s plan for the sacrifice of their Son to the Father, in spite of her heartfelt agony incurred in witnessing His suffering and immolation.


Mary, Coredemptrix


Thus, the Blessed Mother of God participated in the coredemption of mankind in a very unique way.

In the ancient writings of the Church Fathers (i.e. the disciples of the Apostles, and their disciples, as well) and the Doctors of the Church, they acknowledge Mary’s role as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate without using modern terms. We see further evidence of her role in many of the historical Papal writings. This is Catholic Tradition, and is part of our Faith.

Dr. Mark Miravalle, professor at the Franciscan University at Stuebenville and President of Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici, discussed the related Patristic writings in this way:

"Mary’s coredemptive role with our Lord in the work of redemption emerges as an important theme in the early Church beginning with Sts. Justin and Irenaeus in the second century. They used the image of the "New Adam" (Jesus) and the "New Eve" (Mary): The life of grace that the first Adam and the first Eve had jointly lost for mankind, was jointly restored by the New Adam and the New Eve. The virgin Eve, through her disobedience to the Father, interiorly cooperated with Adam in the sin that lost the life of grace for the human family (Cf. Gn 3:6); the Virgin Mary, in her obedience to the Father (Cf. Lk 1:38), interiorly cooperated with Jesus Christ, the New Adam, in the salvation of the human family through His redemption.

"Mary’s unequaled participation in the redemption of the human race as the New Eve was the universal Christian teaching in the early Church. In fact, the great Patristic scholar, John Henry Newman, said that "by the time of St. Jerome (331-420), the contrast between Eve and Mary had almost passed into a proverb." St. Jerome had remarked: "Per Evam mors, per Mariam vita" ("Death through Eve, Life through Mary")..." (1) 

In the first chapter of the Gospel of Luke we read of the Annunciation by St. Gabriel to Mary that she had been chosen to be the mother of the Savior. Through one contemporary prophet, Our Lord has told us that when St. Gabriel announced to her that she would be the mother of the Messiah, she was given a vision of the rest of her life and the sorrow that she would endure in offering her Son as a sacrifice. She agreed to her role in God’s plan for our salvation by responding with the Magnificat: "Behold, the handmaid of the Lord; be it done to me according to thy word." (Lk 1:38)

She thereby cooperated as a partner in God’s plan for the redemption of mankind, and her body and the body of the Son of God became united inseparably for nine months. No other creature has ever had this honor. No other creature has ever cooperated with God’s plan of redemption at such a level. Her role of coredemption is unique.

Further, we see evidence of the pain and suffering that she was to endure in the second chapter of Luke when Jesus was presented to God in the temple. It was Simeon who stated, "…and a sword will pierce your own heart, too.". (Lk 2:35)

In Holy Scripture we read of her further cooperation with God’s plan when she encountered Jesus carrying His cross. In spite of her agony, she neither interfered nor objected. We read of the Blessed Mother being present at Jesus’ crucifixion. Again, she cooperated fully, and neither objected nor interfered.

Father Peter J. Arnoudt in his book "The Imitation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus" (Imprimatur, Nihil Obstat) relates one of his locutions from Jesus which provides additional insight into the pain experienced by the Blessed Virgin at the crucifixion of her Son:

Jesus said: "My Child, behold! At last we come to Golgotha, to Mount Calvary. They lay down the cross forthwith, they push forward and hurry on everything.

"Nor do they, meanwhile, cease to torture Me. Nay, they even gave Me wine mingled with myrrh and gall. So great was their cruelty!

"And when they were now ready, raising a shout, they cruelly fasten Me to the cross, driving in the nails, with violent and repeated strokes, which the valley below re-echoed to the sky, ------each one of which pierced the Heart of My Mother, there present.

"Thus, Child, did they dig My hands and My feet: they counted all My bones, which, by the stretching of My Body, could be seen distinctly.

"Then couldst thou behold the cross ruthlessly raised, and Myself hanging between heaven and earth; whilst the Blood flowed from every wound, washing the earth, and crying to heaven for the salvation of man…." (2)

She stood there, and remained obedient. Imagine the agony of watching your Son tortured and crucified knowing that you willingly agreed to offer Him in this way to the Father. In the end Mary responded the same way in which she had in the beginning: "And Mary kept all these things, reflecting on them in her heart." (Lk 2:20)

While Jesus offered His passion to His Father, the Blessed Mother offered her compassion to the Father.

Our Lady provides additional insight into our participation and her participation in our coredemption in one of her most reveling messages to Fr. Stefano Gobbi (Imprimaturs). Message #203 is entitled "The Work of Coredemption":

"Assent to my plan, beloved sons, and allow yourselves to be formed by your Mother. Thus I am able, more and more, to associate you with my maternal work of coredemption.

"Jesus is the only Redeemer because He alone is the mediator between God and men. He has however willed to take into partnership in his redemptive work all those who have been redeemed by Him, so that the merciful work of his love may shine forth in a greater and more wonderful way.

"Thus you, who have been redeemed, can cooperate with Him in his redemptive work. He in you, who are so intimately united with Him so as to form his very Mystical Body, can gather in your day the fruit of what He accomplished once for all on Calvary.

"I am for you the perfect model of your cooperation in the redemptive work accomplished by my Son. In fact, as Mother of Jesus, I have become intimately associated with Him in his work of redemption.

"My presence beneath the Cross tells you how my Son has willed to unite the Mother completely to all his great sufferings, at the time of his passion and his death for you.

If the Cross was his scaffold, the pain of my Immaculate Heart was like the altar on which my Son offered to the Father the Sacrifice of the new and eternal Covenant.

"As Mother of the Church, I was also intimately associated with Jesus in the accomplishment of his redemptive work, which is carried out in the course of history, by offering to all men the possibility of accepting that salvation which He obtained for you at the time of his bloody immolation. Thus the more numerous they are who attain salvation, the more fully is the masterpiece of his divine love realized.

"My motherly task is that of helping my children in every way to attain salvation; and today still, it is that of cooperating in a very special way in the redemption accomplished by my Son Jesus. My role as true Mother and Coredemptrix will become manifest to all…" (3)


Dr. Miravalle explains: "At the Annunciation (Cf. Lk. 1:38) Mary freely cooperated in giving the Second Person of the Trinity His human body which is the very instrument of redemption, as Scripture tells us: "We have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" (Heb 10:10).

"And at the foot of the cross of our Saviour (Cf. Jn 19:26), Mary’s intense sufferings, united with those of her Son, as Pope John Paul II tells us, were, "also a contribution to the Redemption of us all" (Salvifici Doloris, n. 25). Because of this intimate sharing in the redemption accomplished by the Lord, the Mother of the Redeemer is uniquely and rightly referred to by Pope John Paul II and the Church as the "Coredemptrix"…The Marian title of Coredemptrix never places Mary on a level of equality with her Divine Son, Jesus Christ. Rather it refers to Mary’s unique human participation which is completely secondary and subordinate to the redeeming role of Jesus, who alone is true God and true Man. (1)

"As our "goodness" does not make God less good, neither does Mary’s share in God’s redemptive plan take away from Jesus’ unique role as Redeemer.". (3)

 In his audience of September 18, 1996, Pope John Paul II said:


"For Mary, dedication to the person and work of Jesus means...co-operation in His work of salvation. Mary carries out this last aspect of her dedication to Jesus "under Him", that is, in a condition of subordination, which is the fruit of grace. However this is true co-operation, because it is realized "with him" and, beginning with the Annunciation, it involves active participation in the work of redemption. "Rightly therefore," the Second Vatican Council observes, "the Fathers see Mary not merely as passively engaged by God, but as freely co-operating in the work of man’s salvation through faith and obedience. For, as St. Irenaeus says, she "being obedient, became the cause of salvation for herself and the whole human race.". (Adv. Haer. III, 22, 4).

Cardinal Avery Dulles explains it in much the same manner. He quotes Pope John Paul II in his Wednesday audience catechesis of April 9, 1996:

"Moreover, when the Apostle Paul says, "For we are God's fellow workers" (1 Cor. 3:9) , he maintains the real possibility for man to co-operate with God. The collaboration of believers, which obviously excludes any equality with him, is expressed in the proclamation of the Gospel and in their personal contribution to its taking root in human hearts. However, applied to Mary, the term "co-operator" acquires a specific meaning. The collaboration of Christians in salvation takes place after the Calvary event, whose fruits they endeavor to spread by prayer and sacrifice. Mary, instead, co-operated during the event itself and in the role of mother; thus her co-operation embraces the whole of Christ's saving work. She alone was associated in this way with the redemptive sacrifice that merited the salvation of all mankind. In union with Christ and in submission to him, she collaborated in obtaining the grace of salvation for all humanity."






 Cardinal Dulles explains further: "Whether he [John Paul II] is speaking of Mary's mediation or of her role in redemption, the Pope always makes it clear that he is referring to her participation in Christ's own action, which is by itself incomparable and sufficient. The doctrine of Mary as coredemptrix cannot mean that she stands on the same level with Christ or makes up for any deficiency in his redemptive action. But since Christ's mediation does not exclude the cooperation of subordinate mediators, so, it would seem, he could freely associate others with his redemptive action without ceasing to be the full and sufficient cause. If this point is clearly understood, it is acceptable to speak of Mary as having been in some way conjoined with Christ in his redemptive work, and in that qualified sense as "coredemptrix." (7)


Mary, Mediatrix of All Graces


"Standing by the cross of Jesus were His mother and His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopias, and Mary of Magdala. When Jesus saw His mother and the disciple there whom He loved, He said to His mother, "Woman behold, your son." Then He said to the disciple, "Behold your mother.". (Jn 19:25-27)


On July 16, 1980 (Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel), Our Lady gave Message #204 to Fr. Stefano Gobbi, which is entitled, "Mediatrix of Graces". It reads:

"Beloved children, I am the Mediatrix of Graces. Grace is the very life of God which is communicated to you. It springs from the bosom of the Father and is merited for you by the Word who, in my virginal womb, became man to share with you that same divine life, and for this He offered Himself as a ransom for you, becoming thus the one and only Mediator between God and all humanity.

"From the bosom of the Father, grace, in order to reach you, must therefore pass through the divine Heart of the Son, who communicates it to you in His Spirit of Love. Just as a ray of light, which passes through a window, assumes its shape, color and design, so too divine grace, merited by Jesus, can come to you only through Him, and it is for this reason that it reproduces in you His own image, the very same image which shapes you ever more and more to His own person.

"Divine life can reach you only in the form of Jesus, and the more this increases in you, the more you are assimilated to Him, in such a way that you can really grow as His little brothers.

"By means of grace, the Father communicates Himself to you ever more and more, the Son assimilates you, the Holy Spirit transforms you, bringing about a relationship of life with the Most Holy Trinity, which becomes ever increasingly strong and active. Within souls who are in grace, it is the Most Holy Trinity Itself which takes up its dwelling place there.

"This life of grace has also a relationship with your heavenly Mother.

"As I am truly the Mother of Jesus and your Mother, my mediation is exercised between you and my Son Jesus. .This is the natural consequence of my divine motherhood.

"As the Mother of Jesus, I am the means chosen by God by which my Son can reach you. In my virginal womb this first act of mediation of mine is carried out.

"As your Mother, I was the means chosen by Jesus that through me all of you may reach Him.

"I am truly the Mediatrix of Grace between you and my Son Jesus. My task is that of distributing to my little children that grace which flows out from the bosom of the Father, is merited for you by the Son and is given to you by the Holy Spirit.

"My task is that of distributing it to all my children, according to the particular needs of each one, which the Mother is very good at knowing.

"I am ever carrying out this duty of mine. However I can carry it out fully only in the case of those children who entrust themselves to me with perfect abandonment. I am above all able to carry it out in respect to you, my favorite sons who, by your consecration, have entrusted yourselves completely to me.

"I am the way which leads you to Jesus. I am the safest and shortest way, the necessary way for each one of you. If you refuse to go along this way, you run the danger of being lost in the course of your journey.

"Today many have wished to put me aside, considering me an obstacle in reaching Jesus, because they have not understood my function as Mediatrix between you and my Son.

"And so, never before as in these present times, are so many of my children running the risk of not being able to reach Him. The Jesus whom they meet is often only the result of their human research, and corresponds to their aspirations and desires; He is a Jesus formed according to their measure; He is not Jesus, the Christ, the true Son of God and of your Immaculate Mother.

"Entrust yourselves to me with confidence, and you will remain faithful, because I will be able to carry out fully my work as Mediatrix of Graces. .I will take you each day along the way of my Son, in such a way that He may increase in you to His fullness.

"This is my great work, which I am still carrying out in silence and in the desert. Under my powerful action as Mediatrix of Graces, you are ever more transformed into Christ, that you may become fit for the task which awaits you. Forward then, with courage, along the way traced out by your heavenly Mother…" (3)


  [Note well the significance of the Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.].


We see that in His last act before His death, Jesus gave us His mother as the mediatrix between mankind and Jesus, a role of subordinate mediation. She earned this right through her coredemptive role. Is it not the role of a mother to mediate on behalf of her children? How many times have mothers softened the will of disciplinarian fathers by their pleas of mediation?

In his encyclical, Redemptoris Mater, Pope John Paul II stated: "Thus there is mediation: Mary places herself between her Son and mankind in the reality of its wants, needs and sufferings. She puts herself "in the middle", that is to say, she acts as a mediatrix not as an outsider, but in her position as mother. She knows that , as such, she can point out to her Son the needs of mankind and in fact, she "has the right" to do so." (4)

According to Dr. Miravalle, "The title "Mediatrix of all Graces" is appropriate for Mary simply by the fact that she gave Jesus his human nature. In accepting the invitation to be his Mother, she becomes the "God-bearer" (Gk. theotokos) and thereby mediates to us Jesus Christ, author of all graces. Therefore, the Annunciation (Lk 1:26-38) is an event of mediation on the part of Our Lady, as she finds herself "in the middle," that is, between God and us. She, alone, freely chooses whether she will or will not give flesh to the second person of the Trinity…

"At the Wedding of Cana (Cf. Jn 2:1-11), we again see Mary’s mediation, and, most significantly, we see the effects of her mediation: "This, the first of his signs, Jesus did at Cana in Galilee, and manifested his glory; and his disciples believed in him" (Jn 2:11).

"As our Lord was dying on the Cross, he gives to his Virgin Mother the new role of Mother of all Christians: "Woman, behold, your son!...Behold, your mother!" (Jn 19:26). At the Lord’s command the Blessed Virgin becomes Mother of all Christians (and universally, the Mother of all peoples), and therein is called to exercise her supernatural duties as our spiritual Mother. This surely means that she will have the task of nourishing her children, and she does this by mediating the graces of the Redemption from Christ to mankind. Therefore, she is "Mediatrix of all Graces." (1)

Dr. Miravalle continues, "By the fourth century, the Church Fathers manifested a profound understanding of Mary’s function as Mediatrix. In reference to the Blessed Virgin, St. Ephraem (373) said: "With the Mediator, you are the Mediatrix of the entire world" (S. Ephraem, Syri opera graeca et latine, ed., Assemani, v. 3, Romae, pp. 525, 528-9, 532). St. Cyril of Alexandria, in one of the greatest Marian sermons of antiquity, said: "Hail Mary Theotokos, venerable treasure of the whole world...it is you through whom the Holy Trinity is glorified and adored,...through whom the tempter, the devil is cast down from heaven, through whom the fallen creature is raised up to heaven, through whom all creation, once imprisoned by idolatry, has reached knowledge of the truth, through whom holy baptism has come to believers...through whom nations are brought to repentance...." (Hom. in Deiparam, PG 65, p.681). Antipater of Bostra, another Father of the Council of Ephesus (AD 431), wrote: "Hail you who acceptably intercede as a Mediatrix for mankind."

"St. Andrew of Crete, St. John Damascene, St. Germanus of Constantinople, St. Peter Damian, St. Bernard of Clairvaux and St. Bernardine of Siena all spoke either explicitly of Mary as Mediatrix of all Graces or of Marian mediation. Such citations became ever more frequent by numerous Doctors of the Church, mystics, saints, and writers throughout the Middle Ages up to the modern era. St. Bernard of Clairvaux stated: "God has willed that we should have nothing which would not pass through the hands of Mary" (Hom. III in vig. nativit., n. 10, PL 183, 100)." (5)


Father Peter Damian M. Fehlner, F.F.I stated it this way: "In a word the suffering and death He endured corporally, she endured in her heart without dying, so that she might be by right (meritoriously, exigitive) maternal mediatrix of all graces…Mary is the mediatrix of that union between Head and Body, Christ and us, because she is the Virgin Mother, the maternal Coredemptrix, on Calvary…". (5)


With respect to the Papal writings on this issue, Cardinal Avery Dulles summarizes them as follows: "The designation of Mary as "mediatrix" is a commonplace in papal documents. Leo XIII in 1896 said of her, "No single individual can even be imagined who has ever contributed or ever will contribute so much toward reconciling man with God.... She is therefore truly His [Christ's] mother and for this reason a worthy and acceptable `Mediatrix to the Mediator.'" Pius X in 1904 said that by reason of the union she had with Jesus she is "the most powerful mediatrix and advocate of the whole world with her divine Son." Benedict XV in 1915 in an address to the Consistory of Cardinals declared: "The faith of her believers and her children's love consider her not only God's mother, but also the mediatrix with God." Pius XI in 1928 declared that Christ willed "to make his mother the advocate for sinners and the dispenser and mediatrix of his grace." Pius XII in 1940, without actually using the term "mediatrix," urged faithful Christians to have recourse to Mary since, as Bernard had taught, "It is the will of God that we obtain all favors through Mary." (7)


Common Objection – I Timothy 2:5 

"First of all, then, I ask that supplications, prayers, petitions, and thanksgivings be offered for everyone, for kings and for all in authority, that we may lead a quiet and tranquil life in all devotion and dignity. This is good and pleasing to God our Savior, who wills everyone to be saved and to come to knowledge of the truth. For there is one God. There is also one mediator between God and the human race, Christ Jesus, himself human, who gave himself as ransom for all." (I Tm 2:1-6).


Dr. Miravalle continues, "One objection that resurfaces particularly in various ecumenical arenas is on the classic Pauline text of 1 Tim 2:5: "For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." Although the overall context of the passage in which the verse occurs highlights the value of human "supplications, prayers, intercessions" from the faithful (cf. v. 1-4), nonetheless the "one Mediator" reference is interpreted by some in the sense of "exclusivity," as a mandate prohibiting any other subordinate mediation within, and in service to, the one mediation of Jesus Christ…

"The general concept of mediation as manifest in Sacred Scripture reveals a mediator (Gk. mesites) as a person who seeks to intervene between two parties with the purpose of reconciliation and union of the two respective parties. The task of the mediator is not to further distance the two respective parties, but to unite and reconcile. Sacred Scripture, as we shall see, reveals divinely designated mediators chosen explicitly by God to assist in the process of uniting and reconciling God and the human family. It is in this context that we must examine 1 Tim 2:5.

"The proper understanding of "Christ the one Mediator" text of 1 Tim 2:5 presupposes a critical and fundamental distinction: the one and perfect mediation of Jesus Christ does not prevent or prohibit, but rather provides and calls for a sharing and participation by others in a subordinate and secondary fashion in this one perfect mediation of the Lord. The perfect mediation of Jesus Christ allows for, as a quality and manifestation of its perfection, the participation of others in His one and primordial mediation to the Father.

Scripture reveals, in the context of several parallels, not only the possibility but in fact the obligation of Christians to participate in that which is in the first place exclusively true of Jesus Christ.

"The one Sonship of Jesus Christ. There is only one true begotten Son of the Father. This is the Logos, the Word who became flesh. At the same time, we are called to become adopted sons of God (Cf. 2: Cor 5:17; 1 Jn 3:1; Jn 1:12; Gal 2:20; 2 Pet 1:4). Adopted sonship is a participation in the one Sonship of Jesus Christ, which only manifests the glory and efficacy of the one Sonship of the Lord.

"The One Priesthood of Jesus Christ. Hebrews makes reference to the uniqueness and singularity of Jesus Christ, the "high priest" (Cf. Heb 3:1; 4:14; 5:10), who alone as Priest and Victim is offered "for the sanctification of us all" (Cf. Heb 10:10). At the same time, all Christians are called in different levels and degrees to participate in the one Priesthood of Jesus Christ. This is done in a special way in the ministerial priesthood in the sacramental continuation of the offering of the Sacrifice of Calvary. It is also shared in by the "royal priesthood" of the laity (Cf. 1 Pt 2:9) where all baptized into Christ are called to "offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God" (1 Pt 2:5). Christians thereby, whether in degrees of the priesthood of the laity or in ministerial priesthood, are called to participate and share in that which is exclusively true of Jesus Christ, the one High Priest.

"Living in the One Christ. The life of grace is a participation in the life and love of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. We do not fully possess in ourselves the infinite being and attributes of God. When the Greek and Latin Fathers exhort us to "deification" and "divinization," they are calling the faithful to participation in the divine nature. We become "partakers of the divine nature" (Cf. 2 Pt 1:4). In the order of participation, our life of grace is dependent on "Christ who lives in me" (Gal 2:20), a sharing in the one divine nature of Christ Jesus.

"It is in this context of the scriptural imperative for Christians to participate in that which is uniquely true of the Lord, that we properly understand 1 Tim 2:5. The perfect mediation of Jesus Christ likewise elicits a Christian imperative for all baptized Christians to participate and profoundly share in the one mediation of the Lord. As adopted sons of the one Son; as priests, ministerial and royal, sharing in the sacrifice of the one Priest; as partakers in the one divine nature of Christ, all Christians must also participate in the one mediation of Christ. The People of God must mediate to the world (and to one another) the fullness of the salvific Gospel of Christ the one Mediator. (5)

[Note: I Timothy 2:1 calls for our prayers to be offered for the benefit of others. Are not such prayers a form of mediation? (6) ]

"The primordial question remains: does it obscure, or does it manifest the glory of the one mediation of Jesus Christ to have others participate in this one mediation? This question is succinctly answered when one imagines a Church and a world without adopted sons and daughters participating in the one Sonship; a Church and a world without priests sharing in the one Priesthood; as well as a Church and a world without participation in the divine nature leading to the sanctification of the human family.

"Participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ constitutes a critical Christian imperative which in a most incarnational way profoundly manifests the glory of the one primary and foundational mediation of Jesus Christ; it is a subordinate mediation in the one Mediation upon which the life and efficacy of the Church as a whole finds her own identity and purpose. The Church must always participate in the one mediation of the Lord, and through her prayer and sacramental life, through her Petrine office and apostolic succession, mediate to the world the truth and life of the One Mediator until he comes again in Glory.

"The written Word of God also points to several examples of created persons called upon directly by the Father to participate in acts of subordinate mediation. The Patriarchs were chosen by God to mediate a covenantal relationship between Yahweh and his chosen nation, starting with Abraham (Cf. Gn 12:2; Gn 15:18). Moses was the great Old Testament mediator, who acted as the chosen "intermediary" (Cf. Gal 3:19) to unite Yahweh and the Israelites in the great covenant of Exodus. The moral and "physical" mediation of Moses is illustrated in Exodus, when the hands of Moses had to be elevated and sustained by others in order for Yahweh’s favor in battle to continue to reach the chosen People (Cf. Ex 17:11-13).

"The Prophets were chosen by God and granted divine illumination by the Spirit of Truth to be mediators of communication between Yahweh and the people of Israel. The Angels, as God’s secondary causes, fill the pages of both Old and New Testaments in their role as heavenly mediators between God and his people of faith.

"St. Paul tells us in Galatians: "Why then the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the offspring should come to whom the promise had been made; and it was ordained by angels through an intermediary. Now an intermediary implies more than one; but God is one" (Gal. 3:19-20). Revelation plainly attests to the reality of created personal mediators, both human and angelic, who can be seen as sharing in the one perfect mediation of Jesus Christ at the reconciling service of the Father and the human family.

"The Second Vatican Council substantially establishes the legitimacy of subordinate mediation as a participation in the perfect mediation of Jesus Christ, while confirming the fruit of subordinate mediation as a manifestation of that which is uniquely true and dependent upon the "one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus"

(Cf. 1 Tm 2:5):


"No creature could ever be counted along with the Incarnate Word and Redeemer; but just as the priesthood of Christ is shared in various ways both by his ministers and the faithful, and as the one goodness of God is radiated in different ways among his creatures, so also the unique mediation of the Redeemer does not exclude but rather gives rise to a manifold cooperation which is but a sharing in this one source (Lumen Gentium, n. 62).

"What then of Maternal Mediation? How does the Mother of Jesus participate in the one Mediation of the Lord?

"In regard to Mary Mediatrix and her unique sharing in the one mediation of Jesus Christ, the Council Fathers tell us:


"The Church does not hesitate to profess this subordinate role of Mary. She experiences it continuously and commends it to the hearts of the faithful, so that, encouraged by this maternal help, they may more closely adhere to the Mediator and Redeemer" (Lumen Gentium, n.62).

"The Blessed Virgin Mary shares like no other creature, angel or saint, in the one mediation of Jesus Christ, and therefore is rightly and uniquely referred to as the "Mediatrix" (Lumen Gentium, n. 62). Mary in a way all her own and beyond all other creatures participates in 1 Tim 2:5, because of her unique coredemptive participation in the acquisition of grace with and under Jesus as the New Eve that consequently results in her unique mediatorial task in the distribution of the graces of Calvary. John Paul II explains in Redemptoris Mater:


"Mary entered, in a way all her own, into the one mediation ‘between God and men’ which is the mediation of the man Christ Jesus (Cf. 1 Tm 2:5)...we must say that through this fullness of grace and supernatural life she was especially predisposed to cooperation with Christ, the one Mediator of human salvation. And such cooperation is precisely this mediation subordinated to the mediation of Christ...In Mary’s case we have a special and exceptional mediation..."

"St. Thomas Aquinas succinctly sums up the principle which articulates not only the legitimacy of Marian mediation but also the legitimacy of all Christians participating in that one perfect mediation of Jesus: "Christ alone is the perfect mediator between God and man...but there is nothing to prevent others in a certain way from being called mediators between God and man insofar as they, by preparing or serving, cooperate in uniting men to God."

"Our Lady is the Coredemptrix who uniquely shares in the one mediation of Christ in acquiring the fruits of the Redemption, and as a result she uniquely participates in that selfsame perfect mediation of Christ as Mediatrix of the graces of the Redemption, bringing to the People of God, as the Council says, "the gifts of eternal salvation." (5)


Cardinal Dulles explains Mary’s subordinate mediatorial role in this manner:

"The difficulty is often raised that to speak of Mary in these terms derogates from the unique mediatorship of Jesus Christ, which is formally affirmed in Scripture (1 Tim. 2:5). Mary's mediation might even seem to interfere with an immediate union between the Christian and the Lord. In replying to this difficulty, Pope John Paul II repeats the teaching of Vatican II that "all the saving influences of the Blessed Virgin ... originate from the divine pleasure; they flow forth from the superabundance of the merits of Christ, rest on his mediation, depend entirely upon it, and draw all their power from it. In no way do they impede the immediate union of the faithful with Christ. Rather, they foster this union" ("Dogmatic Constitution on the Church," No. 60). Mary's mediation, according to the council, "takes nothing away from the dignity and power of Christ the one mediator, and adds nothing to it" (No. 62). (7)


Since Our Lady’s first apparition to St. James in the first century, there have been thousands upon thousands of documented alleged apparitions of the Blessed Virgin. She has appeared worldwide to people of all walks of life and of all ages. In her many apparitions, she has pleaded with us for our conversion, prayers, and fasting. She has told us that she presents our prayers and sacrifices, together with her prayers, before her Son to comfort His pain, appease His wrath, and trigger His mercy.

Her statues have cried human tears and tears of oil in desperate efforts to prompt us to convert, pray and fast; as well as to prompt us to evangelize others who remain inattentive to her mediatorial pleas.

Her effectiveness at mediating between her Son and man is limited by the nature and extent of our prayers. She is engaged in battle with the Red Dragon using our prayers as her weapons.

We must keep her well-armed.


Mary, Advocate


"…Then Bathsheba went to King Solomon to speak to him for Adonijah, and the king stood up to meet her and paid her homage. Then he sat down upon his throne, and a throne was provided for the king's mother, who sat at his right. "There is one small favor I would ask of you," she said. "Do not refuse me." "Ask it, my mother," the king said to her, "for I will not refuse you…". (I Kgs 2:19-20)


The Blessed Mother of God is the fairest daughter of the Father, the Mother of the Son and the Spouse of the Holy Spirit. She has a relationship with the Holy Trinity unlike any other creature. Her role as Advocate for the children of God is unlike any other creature’s as well.

  Dr. Miravalle described it this way: "In the great Davidic kingdoms of the Old Testament, the mother of the king traditionally held the office of the "Queen Mother" (or "Gebirah" in Hebrew, literally meaning "the Great Lady", (Cf. 1 Kgs 2:11,19). The principal role of the Queen Mother was to serve as advocate or intercessor on behalf of the people of Israel to her son the King.

"In the New Testament, with the announcement of the new and eternal King and Kingdom of God (Cf. Lk. 1:32-33), so too humanity receives a new Queen Mother, as principal advocate for the people of God in presenting their needs to Jesus Christ, the King of kings. .Her advocacy is clearly manifest at Cana, interceding on behalf of those without physical wine, but ultimately for the spiritual and Eucharistic wine of her Son (Jn 2:1-10). At Calvary, the Crucified King presents his Mother and Queen to the world as gift to all in his Kingdom (Jn 19:27). And in Revelation, the new Queen Mother in the universal and everlasting Kingdom of Christ is crowned with twelve stars (Rv 12:1), as she, in battle array, continues her life and death advocacy for humanity against the spiritual warring of the Dragon-Adversary. (6)

"Mary’s doctrinal role as Advocate for the People of God constitutes something substantially more than the simple intercession participated in by all other saints. Our Lady’s role as Advocate completes what might be considered the Marian circle of mediation at the service of Christ and the human family.

."As Coredemptrix, the Virgin shares in the acquisition of grace with and under Christ. As Mediatrix, she dispenses those graces of Redemption to the human family. But the Marian circle of universal mediation finds its completion in Mary’s role of bringing the petitioned needs of humanity back from humanity to the throne of Christ the King, thus completing her mediatorial service both for the Lord and for humanity. " (5)


Perhaps her intercessory role as Advocate for the children of God is best explained by Our Lady herself in her message #396 to Fr. Stefano Gobbi on December 31, 1988 entitled "Mother of Intercession and of Reparation". It reads:

"Gather together in prayer with me, beloved children, at the end of this year which has been particularly dedicated to me. I am your heavenly Mother.

"I am the Mother of Intercession and of Reparation.

-- "My maternal task is that of interceding each day for you, before my Son Jesus. As an attentive and concerned Mother, I am asking for all the graces that you have need of in order to walk along the road of goodness, of love and of holiness.

"For my sinful children, I obtain the grace of repentance, of a change of heart, of return to the Lord. For my sick children, I grant the grace of understanding the meaning of every suffering, of accepting it with docility, of offering it with love, of carrying one's own cross with trust and with filial obedience to the Will of the Lord. For my good children, I obtain the gift of perseverance in good. For my priest-sons, I intercede that they may be holy ministers and faithful to Jesus and to his Gospel.

"Each new day that opens out corresponds to a new act of prayer on the part of your heavenly Mother, to help you to walk forward, in the desert of your time, along the road of love and of the faithful fulfillment of the Will of God, which must be accomplished by you with filial docility.

-- "My maternal task is also that of offering reparation for the great evil which, still today, is being committed in the world. I unite myself with each Holy Mass which is celebrated, to offer to the Heavenly Father the precious blood of his Son Jesus, who is still immolating and sacrificing Himself for you on every altar of the earth. It is only his divine blood, shed for you, that can wash away all the evil, the sin, the hatred, the impurity, the iniquity that covers the world. Thus, in a spirit of maternal reparation, I unite to the blood of Christ all the sufferings which I gather together, each day, along your pathway.

"I unite to the blood of Jesus, the blood poured out by millions of babies still being killed in their mothers' wombs and of all the victims of hatred, of violence and of wars.

"I unite to the blood of Jesus, all the sufferings of the sick, especially those who are stricken with grave, humiliating and incurable maladies.

"I unite to the blood of Jesus, the agonies of the dying, the sufferings of the poor, of the marginalized, of the little, of the exploited, of the persecuted.

"I unite to the blood of Jesus, each suffering of the good, of those consecrated, of the priests.

"I unite to the blood of Jesus, the great cross which the Church must carry today for the salvation of all humanity.

"At the close of this year, which has been particularly entrusted to me, I want to associate you also in my maternal task of interceding and of making reparation for all my children.

"And even so, in the darkness and the coldness which still surrounds the world, I urge you to live in hope and in great trust, because I am ever praying and making reparation in order to obtain, for all, new days of peace and salvation." (3)

Other references to our Mother’s most powerful advocacy in intercession for us in her messages to her priests include:

"My Immaculate Heart is the golden doorway through which this divine Spirit passes to reach you. And so I invite you to repeat often: ‘Come, Holy Spirit, come by means of the powerful intercession of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, your well-beloved Spouse.’ " (June 7, 1981, Solemnity of Pentecost, 226k)

"If you do what I am asking of you today, you put in my hands a powerful force of intercession and of reparation. And thus I am able to present myself before the throne of the Lord, great and terrible, just and holy, to implore for you his divine mercy: ‘Pardon, O Lord, the iniquity of your people, whom You have acquired at the price of your most precious Blood.’ " (February 17, 1988, Ash Wednesday, 374j)

"I have held in my motherly hands the prayers and the sufferings of all my children and I have deposited them in the open chalice of the divine and merciful Heart of my Son Jesus. Thus I have been able to carry out, in a powerful way, my work of mediation between you and my Son, and, as your sorrowful and merciful Mother, I have interceded before Him for all." (December 31, 1989, 416b)

"The times will be shortened, because I am Mother of Mercy, and each day I offer, at the throne of Divine Justice, my prayer united to that of the children who are responding to me with a ‘yes’ and consecrating themselves to my Immaculate Heart." .(September 29, 1995, Feast of the Holy Archangels, 553c) (6)


The Solemn Definition of our Mother,
Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate

By Dr. Mark Miravalle (6)

What then of a solemn papal definition of the roles of our Mother Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate? In what way would a papal definition of these Marian doctrinal roles as dogma be fruitful for the Church and ultimately for the entire world? Does our Mother make any possible allusion to this official and universal acknowledgment of her Marian titles and her subsequent roles in her messages to her beloved priests?

Let us ponder a few of her statements:

"Until I am acknowledged there where the Most Holy Trinity has willed me to be, I will not be able to exercise my power fully, in the maternal work of coredemption and of the universal mediation of graces. .For this reason, as the battle between me and my Adversary entered its decisive phase, he tried by every means to obscure the mission of your heavenly Mother." (June 14, 1980, Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, 201f)

"My role as true Mother and Coredemptrix will become manifest to all." (July 13, 1980, Anniversary of the Third Apparition of Fatima, 203h)

"When this work of mine is completed, the greatness of the loving plan which I am now carrying out will become apparent to the whole Church. My merciful work of coredemption has now become more necessary and urgent than ever.

The task which the Most Holy Trinity has entrusted to me will be acknowledged by all; I will be able to exercise my great power fully, so that the victory of my Son Jesus may shine forth everywhere, when He will restore, through you, his glorious reign of Love." .(July 13, 1980, Anniversary of the Third Apparition of Fatima, 203mn) (6)

Our Mother repeatedly refers to the fact that until she is acknowledged in her God-given roles, that "I will not be able to exercise my power fully, in the maternal work of coredemption and the maternal mediation of graces" (June 14, 1980). Why is it that the full exercise of her roles as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate are conditional upon the official ecclesial acknowledgement of these Marian titles?

In the great mystery of providence and free will, God has willed that certain actions will take place only through the free cooperation of man. God respects our freedom, and does not force His graces upon us. And as God awaited the free "fiat" of a young woman to bring us our Redeemer (Lk 1:38), so now the same Woman, respecting our freedom, awaits the free "fiat" of a man, our beloved Vicar of Christ on earth, to release a great abundance of supernatural graces upon the Church and the world. But as John the beloved disciple welcomed Mary "into his home" (Jn 19:27), our Holy Father must likewise "welcome" Mary into the homes and the hearts of the human family by papally proclaiming her as the Mother of all Peoples on the highest Church level of authority and truth.

We have reached a point of historical climax in this universally designated "Age of Mary". Our hearts all long for the fulfillment of our Lady’s great Fatima prophecy that "In the end my Immaculate Heart will triumph" (July 13,1917). The papal proclamation of our Lady as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate by the Vicar of Christ is the free invitation in the name of humanity which allows our Spiritual Mother to "exercise fully", as she explains, her great intercessory powers through her maternal roles of coredemption and mediation in bringing her earthly children the heavenly graces so critically needed for the contemporary Church and world.

As such, this fifth and final Marian Dogma, will initiate the Triumph of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Her titles are her works, her functions for the Church, and the papal proclamation of the full truth about our Mother Mary and her sanctifying works for the Church and the world "frees her" to use her full power of motherly intercession for the grave needs for contemporary humanity.

Our Mother also referred to this salvific role given to her by the Most Holy Trinity for this age when she said at Fatima Apparitions, "God wishes to establish devotion to My Immaculate Heart"; appeared as our "Mother of Sorrows" on the day of the great solar miracle (October 13,1917); and pleaded with the world to respond to her call because "only she can save you" (July 13, 1917).

During the 1920’s, the great Belgian prelate, Cardinal Mercier, with the complementary enthusiasm and pen of St. Maximilian Kolbe, began an ecclesial petition for this fifth Marian Dogma. Presently there is an international Catholic movement of prayer and petitioning known as Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici, ("Voice of the People for Mary Mediatrix") seeking to support our beloved "Totus Tuus" Holy Father in papally defining the doctrinal roles of the Mother of All Peoples, Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate as Church dogma. Over five hundred and fifty bishops, including forty-two cardinals, and over six million Catholics from the five continents (including the late Mother Teresa of Calcutta), have prayed and petitioned that this great Marian pope will soon honor our Blessed Mother with this great dogmatic crown, and thus give definitive initiation to the Triumph of her Most Immaculate Heart.

The Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici web site and online petition can be found at:




In Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX explains the benefits of raising an existing Church doctrine to the level of dogma:


"The Church labors hard to polish the previous teachings, to bring to perfection their formulation in such a way that these older dogmas of the heavenly doctrine receive proof, light, distinction, while keeping their fullness, their integrity, their own character, in a word, in such a way that they develop within the same object contents and that they remain always in the same truth, the same denotation, the same thought…"

Further Dr. Miravalle states, "Up to the present time in the history of the church, four Marian doctrines have been defined as central Catholic truths by the Church: the Motherhood of God, the Immaculate Conception, the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, and her Glorious Assumption into heaven. It is now time for the Church, at the summit of this Marian era, to proclaim and define the fifth and final Marian doctrine, that is, Mary's universal mediation as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all grace, and Advocate for the people of God.

 "The universal mediation of the Mother of Jesus as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate for the people of God is already contained in the official and authoritative teachings of the Church's Magisterium. .Now, at the summit of the Marian era, what remains is the final proclamation by the Church of this final Marian doctrine as Christian dogma revealed by God. (1)

"The Immaculate Heart tells her priests: "The task which the Most Holy Trinity has entrusted to me will be acknowledged by all; I will be able to exercise my great power fully, so that the victory of my Son Jesus may shine forth everywhere." (July 13, 1980) The cry of Triumph victory rings in these words of our Mother. She will indeed be freed by this final Marian dogma to intercede for the Triumph of the Immaculate Heart, and the glorious Eucharistic Reign of Jesus upon the world, through a new release of the Holy Spirit, a New Pentecost, in the words of our Holy Father, a "New Springtime" for the Church and world.

"Let us each do our part for the fulfillment of this victorious Triumph cry, that the Mother of all Peoples, Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate may soon be acknowledged by all. Let us pray for our beloved Holy Father, the "masterpiece of the Triumph", for the expedient proclamation of the fifth Marian Dogma, and for a greater preaching and teaching on these Marian titles to the faithful entrusted to our care, thereby preparing their hearts for this upcoming truth and grace. For all of this, the Triumph, the Dogma, the Eucharistic Victory of the Son, and the New Pentecost are contained in the prayer and petition supernaturally revealed from the Immaculate Heart to each of our own hearts through Don Gobbi:

"Come Holy Spirit, come by means of the powerful intercession of

the Immaculate Heart of Mary, your well beloved Spouse" (6)

Ave Maria



NOTE: We respectfully recognize and accept the final authority regarding apparitions, locutions and prophecies presently being reported around the world rests with the Holy See and the Magisterium of Holy Mother Church to whose judgment we humbly and obediently submit.


An Act of Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary

 I, (your name), a faithless sinner-- renew and ratify today in thy hands, O Immaculate Mother, the vows of my Baptism; I renounce forever Satan, his pomps and works; and I give myself entirely to Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Wisdom, to carry my cross after Him all the days of my life, and to be more faithful to Him than I have ever been before.

In the presence of all the heavenly court I choose thee this day, for my Mother and Mistress. I deliver and consecrate to thee, as thy slave, my body and soul, my goods, both interior and exterior, and even the value of all my good actions, past, present and future; leaving to thee the entire and full right of disposing of me, and all that belongs to me, without exception, according to thy good pleasure, for the greater glory of God, in time and in eternity. Amen.


An Act of Consecration to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

Merciful Jesus, I consecrate myself today and always to Your most Sacred Heart. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus I implore, that I may ever love You more and more. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, I trust in You! Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, have mercy on us! Sacred Heart of Jesus, I believe in Your love for me. Jesus, meek and humble of heart, make my heart like Your Heart.


How To Save Your Children

During one of the cenacles which Fr. Gobbi held in the United States, he was urged by many concerned people to ask Our Lady specifically what could be done to save the youth from the seductions of the world which were leading many of them astray and causing them to leave the Church. Our Lady gave Fr. Gobbi this definite and final solution to console the parents who are so concerned about the salvation of their children:


Pray the Rosary !


Every time you pray the Rosary say: "With this Rosary I bind all my children to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.".


In doing so, Our Lady promised "to see to their souls.".


The Memorare

Remember, O most gracious Virgin Mary, that never was it known that anyone who fled to your protection, implored your help, or sought your intercession, was left unaided. Inspired by this confidence, I fly unto you, O Virgin of virgins, my Mother. To you I come; before you I stand sinful and sorrowful. O Mother of the Word Incarnate! Despise not my petitions, but in your mercy hear and answer me. Amen.





Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici, c/o Queenship Publishing, P.O. Box 42028, Santa Barbara, CA 93140-2028; USA. Tel 800-647-9882



The Imitation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, by Rev. Peter J. Arnoudt S.J., IMPRIMATUR; NIHIL OBSTAT; TAN Books and Publishers, Inc.; Rockford, Illinois 61105



To the Priests, Our Lady’s Beloved Sons, by Fr. Stefano Gobbi and The Marian Movement of Priests, National Headquarters USA, P.O. Box 8, St. Francis Maine, USA 04774-0008; Tel: 207-398-3375; IMPRIMATUR: Most Reverend Donald W. Montrose, D.D. Bishop of Stockton February 2, 1998



Redemptoris Mater, n.21; H.H. John Paul II.



MARY Coredemptrix Mediatrix Advocate, Theological Foundations Towards a Papal Definition? © 1995 Mark I. Miravalle; NIHIL OBSTAT Father James Dunfee Censor Librorum; IMPRIMATUR Most Reverend Gilbert Sheldon Bishop of Steubenville March 7, 1995



Our Mother Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate as contained in To the Priests, Our Lady’s Beloved Sons and the Papal Magisterium , by Dr. Mark Miravalle, S.T.D.; published by the Marian Movement of Priests, USA.



Mary at the Dawn of the New Millenium, by Cardinal Avery Dulles.


Recommended Reading


The Dogma and the Triumph By Dr. Mark Miravalle; Queenship Publishing, P.O. Box 42028, Santa Barbara, CA 93140-2028; USA. Tel 800-647-9882


Our Mother Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate as contained in To the Priests, Our Lady’s Beloved Sons and the Papal Magisterium by Dr. Mark Miravalle, S.T.D.; published by the Marian Movement of Priests, USA.  


MARY Coredemptrix Mediatrix Advocate, Theological Foundations Towards a Papal Definition? © 1995 Mark I. Miravalle; NIHIL OBSTAT Father James Dunfee Censor Librorum; IMPRIMATUR: Most Reverend Gilbert Sheldon Bishop of Steubenville March 7, 1995  


The Catechism and the ‘Term’ Coredemptrix


Mary At The Dawn Of The New Millennium, by Cardinal Avery Dulles


Theological Works of Father William G. Most


To the Priests, Our Lady’s Beloved Sons By Fr. Stefano Gobbi; The Marian Movement of Priests, National Headquarters USA, P.O. Box 8, St. Francis Maine, USA 04774-0008; Tel: 207-398-3375; IMPRIMATUR: Most Reverend Donald W. Montrose, D.D. Bishop of Stockton February 2, 1998


Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution of the Church Solemnly Promulgated By H.H. Pope Paul VI; November 21, 1964.


Redemptoris Mater, Encyclical letter of the Supreme Pontiff, John Paul II, On the Blessed Virgin Mary In the Life of the Pilgrim Church; March 25, 1987


Prepared with the grace of God by
Ben J. Verdina (edited September, 2016)


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Upon This Rock

 "I will put enmities between thee and the woman,

and thy seed and her seed: she shall crush thy head,

and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel. "

(Genesis 3:15)


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